22
Mar 14

An Introduction to Underwater Archaeology

images (3)While marine archaeology is mainly confined to the academic and scientific world, it could be said that every diver who explores a wreck has an archaeological interest and responsibility. Both the seabed and many freshwater sites hold compelling historical secrets. Although every dive has the potential to reveal historic artifacts, targeted methodical surveying is an altogether more serious business, as is the correct means of excavating and recording any finds. Archaeological divers can therefore be placed in one of two distinct categories – the serious professional diving archaeologist, and the enthusiastic amateur.

Although this is a field in which amateurs can make a very valuable contribution, it is essential that they do so only through involvement in an organized project, conducted by a recognized and authorized group. Far too many sites have been destroyed, and artifacts removed, by what amounts to vandalism and theft – the equivalent on land might be digging a historic site or burial ground without permission, which is unthinkable, of course. There are many organizations that welcome help from amateur volunteers, and will supervise and guide you.


22
Mar 14

Depersonalization Discovery Cure

The greatest insight about depersonalization is the fact that it is not an illness. It may feel strange and even frightening but this does not indicate a true sickness or long term condition. Depersonalization has its roots in anxiety and eventually the mind becomes exhausted from worry. The fatigued mind is fueled by the cycle of anxiety. The habit of worry is strong and the mind remains fatigued as the fearful behavior continues to cycle. You could say that depersonalization is a stubborn offshoot of the anxiety condition.

It makes perfect sense. When one is worried about how they feel, they become fearful. This becomes their pattern or behavior. The mind becomes tired from studying itself on a constant basis. One becomes hypervigilant, fearing if they lower their guard, they will lose control. Anxiety heightens and the cycle fuels itself. If one were to STOP and recognize that this cycle is triggered and fueled by their own behavior (way of thinking), they could reverse the cycle immediately. Depersonalization depends on one’s constant train of fearful thoughts, which keep the mind fatigued, less resilient and incapable of concentration. These physical symptoms create more fear, which only adds to the habit of worry. And so, the cycle continues and the mind reminds fatigued.

The individual believes that avoidance of work, social life and responsibility is the answer leading to recovery. Nothing could be further from the truth. They cancel engagements and spend most of their time home alone, waiting for recovery to occur. There is a complete paradox to this, as the true path to recovery is not about being alone with one’s thoughts but by learning to change one’s behavior, engage in work, socialize, and allow the mind to refresh itself by learning to move out of one’s own way. It’s clearly about learning to use the specific process of recovery to interrupt the cycle of fear and worry, which fuels this condition. This is the great discovery concerning depersonalization. One must learn to break the cycle of fatiguing anxious thought and step out of their own way. This is the path that allows the mind to refresh itself and rejuvenate. The mind is able to concentrate again, visual disturbances dissipate, the foggy mind clears and a true sense of clarity returns.

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Both are treated identically and neither is a true illness. They are both the product of a fatigued mind, fueled by an underlying anxiety condition. Both are a stubborn form of anxiety treated by a very specific process. When the behavior is corrected, life returns to normal. Behavior Modification- Learning to think differently is essential, in order to interrupt the behavior which fuels a fatigued mind. One must learn and practice a specific way of thinking in order to produce a refreshed mind. They must replace a long term unproductive behavior for a more productive one. This is not difficult but does require commitment to the process.

2. Applying and adhering to a precise diet and nutrition plan, designed specifically for rejuvenation of the mind to take place. This process will also create a far less reactive mind and body, stabilizing blood sugar levels and boosting serotonin levels in the brain naturally. Application of the above along with understanding of the condition will allow a full and permanent recovery. This does not require a long or drawn out process. The only mandatory requirement is one’s commitment and willingness to follow the process in order for permanent recovery to occur. Once this process reaches fruition, there is no need for future concern involving relapse, since the individual knows too much at this time to fall back. One is fully aware and able to recognize elevated stress levels that could possibly trigger and tire the mind.


22
Mar 14

Research in Social Sciences: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

imagesResearch in social sciences largely depends on measurements and analysis and interpretation of numerical as well as non numerical data. Quantitative research methods focus on statistical approaches and qualitative methods are based on content analysis, comparative analysis, grounded theory, and interpretation (Strauss, 1990). Quantitative methods emphasise on objective measurements and numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires or surveys and qualitative research focuses on understanding social phenomena through interviews, personal comments etc. Quantitative and qualitative methods are studied within the context of positivistic and phenomenological paradigms (Papers4you.com, 2006).

The applications of research methods could be studied in the context of business and management or in social psychology to understand a social process. Some of the basic tools for qualitative or quantitative research are related to data collection methods which can be case studies, questionnaires or interviews (Simon et al, 1985). Research methods in management focus on leadership studies and leadership issues are examined in accordance with contingency theory and organisational theory. The effects of leadership are best studied with the help of qualitative or quantitative research methods and analyses of questionnaires sent to participants in management positions.

Research methods are however focused not just on management issues but also on social process for example a study on the interaction between age, physical exercise and gender. Some disadvantages and possible flaws of such methods may be related to abuse or misuse of interview techniques, inadequacy of data collection methods and reliability of data. The methodological approach and data collection techniques are important in research and form an important aspect of study (Simon, 1985). The case study approach is especially useful in analysis of business environments and perceptual mapping techniques are used for marketing research. Focus groups and surveys are used as other preferred methods of data collection, especially within business environments (Papers4you.com, 2006).

Interpretive research can be considered as an important aspect of qualitative analysis, although as with all qualitative data, subjective bias can be a deterrent in the validity of such approaches. In studying research methods, it would be necessary to highlight the differences between qualitative and quantitative methods although it has also been argued that an integrated approach to social analysis could close in the gap between quantitative and qualitative methods and both these methods could be used for social research studies. In fact there may not be a specified correct method of research as each method seems to have its strengths and weaknesses and these factors should be examined carefully before a particular method is selected or used for studying a social process.

ocial sciences include disciplines that are not part of natural sciences. Political science, sociology, journalism, anthropology, linguistic, history, behavioral science, and women’s studies are some of the study programs offered by a social science department in any university or college. These study programs are quite popular, because they offer great career opportunities. In ancient times, mathematics, history, and literature were all considered the same. However, with the passage of time, social science became a distinct field of study. Today these subjects have their own theories, methodologies, and study principles. These sciences are quite different from natural sciences, such as mathematics, in the way they are taught and in their area of focus.